|Effect of Chlorine Dioxide and its Metabolites in Drinking Water on Fetal Development in Rats
The chlorination of surface waters is known to form trihalomethanes. Therefore, chlorine dioxide(ClO2) is being considered as an alternative disinfectant.This study was designed to determine the effect of chlorine dioxide and its metabolites, chlorite (ClO2-) and chlorate (ClO3-), on rat fetuses exposed in utero. Female rats were administered ClO2 at 0, 1, 10 and 100mgl-1 and ClO2- or ClO3- at 1 and 10mgl-1 daily in the drinking water for 2.5 months prior to and throughout gestation. Rats were killed on day 20 and fetuses examined for external, skeletal and visceral malformations. Slight decreases in weight gain during pregnancy were seen in the ClO2 administered groups. A significant does-response relationship in the decreases of the numbers of implants and live fetuses were observed in the ClO2 groups. Although there were increase incidences of resorptions in the ClO2- and ClO3- groups, no statistically significant increase was found in the groups. Fetal weight was significantly increased in the 100mg/l ClO2 group. Also, fetal length was increased in the 10mg/l ClO2- and ClO3- treatment groups. Skeletal defects, such as incompletely ossified or missing sternebrae, rudimentary ribs and incompletely ossified skull bones were increased in all treatment groups, but none were significantly different from the control group. A few cases of hypolastic kidney, hydronephrosis and dextrocardia were observed in the treatmentgroups.
众所周知，地表水的氯化作用会形成三卤甲烷。因此，二氧化氯（ClO2）被认为是一种替代品消毒剂。这个本研究旨在研究二氧化氯及其代谢物亚氯酸盐（ClO2-）和氯酸盐（ClO3-）对宫内暴露的大鼠胎儿的影响。雌性大鼠在怀孕前2.5个月和整个妊娠期间，每天在饮用水中分别加入0,1,10和100mg/L的ClO2-或1, 10mg/L的ClO3-。在第20天杀死大鼠，检查胎儿的外部、骨骼和内脏畸形。ClO2给药组孕期体重增加略有下降。ClO2组植入物和活胎数量的减少与给药剂量关系显著。虽然在ClO2-和ClO3-组中吸收发生率增加，但在统计学上没有发现明显的增加。100mg/l二氧化氯组胎儿体重显著增加。此外，10mg/l ClO2-和ClO3-治疗组的胎儿长度增加。各治疗组胸骨不完全骨化或缺失、肋骨不全、颅骨不完全骨化等骨骼缺损均有增加，但与对照组无显著性差异。治疗组出现一些肾功能不全、肾积水、右位心功能不全情况。
文章来源： JOURNAL OF APPLIED TOXICOLOGY, VOL. 3, NO.2,1983
作者：Duck H. Suh, Mohamed S. Abdel-Rahman and Richard J. Bull
Toxicology Laboratory, Department of Pharmacology, New Jersey Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, New Jersey